Set a 6-quart Instant Pot to saute; add olive oil.
When oil is warm, add onion, 1 teaspoon curry powder, and ½ teaspoon salt.
Saute 5 minutes, stirring occasionally. Add garlic and ginger. Cook 1 minute more.
Sprinkle chicken with remaining 2 teaspoons curry powder, 1/1/2 teaspoons salt, and ½ teaspoon pepper. Add to Instant Pot; cook 2 minutes on each side.
Press Cancel to reset Instant Pot.
Add cauliflower to Instant Pot; pour in coconut milk.
Place top on Instant Pot; twist to seal and lock. Turn Steam Release Valve to “sealing.”
Set Instant Pot to cook at High Pressure for 8 minutes.
After cooking is complete, manually release the pressure by turning the Steam Release Valve to “venting.”
Remove lid; shred chicken with 2 forks. Stir in 1 cup frozen peas, lime juice, and yogurt, if desired. Let curry stand 5 minutes.
Serve curry with rice and naan bread. Garnish with cilantro and lime wedges, if desired.